Muskox Land

Ellesmere Island in the Age of Contact


Muskox Land

Critical forces of culture and nature collide in this comprehensive history of Ellesmere Island in the age of contact. Surveying the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Lyle Dick presents an impressive treatment of European-Inuit contact in the High Arctic (the area of what is now the Quttinirpaaq National Park) while considering the roles of the natural environment and cultures as factors in human history. As he charts the dynamic interplay between change and continuity in this forbidden land, Dick unravels the complexities of cultural exchange and human relationships to the Arctic landscape. Muskox Land : Ellesmere Island in the Age of Contact provides a meticulously researched and richly illustrated treatment of Canada's High Arctic as it interweaves insights from historiography, Native studies, ecology, anthropology, and polar exploration.

Winner of the Harold Adams Innis Prize for Best English Language Book in the Social Sciences, Canadian Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Muskox Land 1
Contents 8
List of Figures 10
Acknowledgements 16
Note on Orthography and Terminology 20
Introduction 22
PART ONE: CONTINUITIES: The Natural Environment, Culture, and Human History 28
1: Geography and Climatic History of Ellesmere Island 34
2: High Arctic Ecosystems and Human History 58
3: Inughuit Culture in the High Arctic, 1800–1900 88
4: The Inuit on Ellesmere Island and Exchanges with the Inughuit in the Nineteenth Century 126
5: European Cultures in the High Arctic, 1818–1940 142
PART TWO: CIRCUMSTANCE: History of Events on Ellesmere Island, 1818–1940 176
6: Early Exploration of the High Arctic by Europeans, 1818–90 180
7: "Mine at Last": Robert E. Peary's Polar Expeditions, 1890–1909 248
8: Assertion of Canadian Sovereignty over the High Arctic, 1895–1940 294
9: Adventurers, Big-Game Hunters, and Scientists on Ellesmere Island, 1934–40 334
PART THREE: CHANGE: The Interplay of Cultures and the Environment, 1818–1940 356
10: Material and Technological Adaptations of the Contact Era 360
11: Intercultural Relations in the Contact Era 392
12: Cultural Contact and High Arctic Ecology, 1818–1940 426
PART FOUR: CIRCUMSTANCE, CHANGE, AND CONTINUITY: Inuit on Ellesmere Island, 1951–2000 448
13: Circumstance: Relocations of the Inuit to the High Arctic, 1951–2000 452
14: Change: Adaptation to New Natural and Cultural Environments, 1951–2000 468
15: Continuity Reasserted: Inuit, the Seasons, and the Land, 1951–2000 492
Conclusion: Ellesmere Island and the Times of History 508
Colour Photographs 520
Notes 530
Bibliography 600
Index 628
A 628
B 629
C 630
D 630
E 631
F 632
G 633
H 633
I 634
K 635
J 635
M 636
L 636
N 637
O 637
P 637
Q 638
R 638
S 639
T 640
U 641
W 641
V 641
Y 642